Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic. Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline.
More than 90% of world industrial production of urea is destined for use as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content (46%) of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. Therefore, it has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient.
Urea is highly soluble in water and is therefore also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions (in combination with ammonium nitrate: UAN). For fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution, which is an advantage for mechanical application.
Besides its use in the crops, it is used as a cattle feed supplement to replace a part of protein requirements. It has also numerous industrial uses notably for production of plastics. Presently all the Urea manufactured in the country is Neem coated.